In the centuries that followed the founding of the abbey, Moscheta saw moments of extreme splendour, and in the 13th century it was considered one of the most prosperous in Tuscany. The monks took good care of the land and the abbey, which grew rapidly, reaching the towns of Luco, Scarperia and Montescalari.
The 14th century witnessed the beginning of the abbey's decline. From the writings of the Abbot general who visited Moscheta in 1372, it can be deduced that the structure was in complete abandonment, and that the abbot had moved to Scarperia: plunderers and thieves continued to pillage it regularly. The great plague of this century had also hit the abbey.
From the first half of the 15th century, a Lay Abbot was designated to the Moscheta Abbey; he was bestowed the abbey and had charge of the estate belonging to it. He did not, however, have say in internal monastic affairs. Bestowing the abbeys, often very profitable, to laymen in whom the church had trust and were rich, and, therefore less likely to steal from it, was common practice at the time. It was useful to maintain control over the estate while gaining approval in the territory. In this way, the abbey saw years of new restored economic splendour, while those of spirituality and charity were put aside. The prestige of the Moscheta abbey was, however, very high: Lawrence the Magnificent himself chose the Lay Abbot from among his loyal followers.
In the 16th century the abbey was abandoned and never again occupied by Vallumbrosan monks. In 1748, during a period of reforms, Gran-duke Leopold prohibited hermitages, and the abbey was put on auction. The money from the sale was used to build the seminary in Firenzuola and the bridges over the Santerno River in Camaggiore, and over the Diaterna River. The new owners transformed the complex into a farm residence until it was finally sold to the State and became a state asset.